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Discussion Starter #1 (Edited)
About 2 months ago I decided to rebuild an engine for my '96 EX (Canadian) civic. This is my first full rebuild. I'm somewhat familiar with most aspects of my car since I've been doing my own repairs for the last couple years. I figure the engine is no different. I purchased a D16Y7 engine, just like the one in the car now, from an auto recycler for $250 complete with intake and exhaust manifolds and most of the wiring (although it's been cut mid section). I figured it would be an easy swap when the time comes. Well since then I've decided to beef up a few things along the way just in case I wanted to get more power out of this thing in the future.

Here's a pic of what I started with.

This engine has about 115,000km on it and the car was totalled. For the km's on it, it looked pretty clean inside when taken apart.

Next winter will be to tear down the engine that's in the car now. It currently has 373,000km on it and still going. It puffs a little blue smoke when I gun it. Probably needs the valve guides replaced. Bottom end still sounds solid. But then again the bottom end really doesn't give you much indication before it blows. Just curious what the bearings and cylinders look like. More to come shorlty.
 

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Discussion Starter #2 (Edited)
Sorry for the short first post. Had to take wifey to the dentist ASAP.

I was planning on doing the comlete swap in June. That's 7 months from the time when the rebuild started. Should be plenty of time. Right? Right! I've been adding a few dress up's to the car as I go along. I wanted to know some of the vitals on the engine. After investigating much on gauges and other bolt ons, I desided to go with AEM's digital gauges on the A pillar. See first picture. What is on the pillar cluster are vac/boost, oil pressure and air/fuel ratio.


So far with the wideband O2 sensor in the primary location, I have it wired to the stock ECU. The ECU is good for up to around 3.8V input. That's ok since anything above 3.8V is running real lean. Not needed at the moment. However I've found that the O2 sensor seems to take time to get up to operating properly. When cold (like you see the snow on the ground in pic 1) the A/F ratio will creep up to the max lean indicator and stay there for a period of time. It actually makes the engine run rough for a bit but then corrects itself and everything is ok. Not sure if it's the ECU doing the correcting or the wideband itself. I tend to think it's the wideband recalibrating. Once it does that it runs fine and practically right on 14.7 A/F most of the time. With the wideband right in the exhaust path it would do this reset thing a coupletimes. So I installed a stainless bung extension. This tamed the false readings. Still get the odd one but it's much better. It also reads at a slower rate rather than jumping around quickly like when in the direct flow of exhaust. When starting the engine I turn the key on and wait until the A/F gauge starts to move, then start the engine. That way I know it's warmed up and ready. This also seems to be the most consistent results during the warmup of the exhaust and headers.

Vitals read as follows on stock original D16Y7:
A/F ratio - cruzing down the highway it reads 14.9 to 15.1. Under full throttle exceleration it reads 13.4.
Oil pressure - 90 psi when cold idling(5w30). 15 - 20 psi when warm idle. 90 psi when cold at 2600rpm, about 90km/h. 55 - 60psi when running 90 km/h fully warmed up.
Vacuum - 22 to 24Hg idling. 12 to 14Hg when running at 90 to 100km/h (about 2600rpm).

Gauges mounted on a Glowshift A pillar gauge cluster. Comes light gray. Does not fit well at all. Attempted to use a heat gun and mould it in place but ended up warping an area and couldn't get it back. Trimmed and cut edges until it was the best it could be. Painted it with a tan textured paint used for outdoor furniture. Not a perfect match with the interior but it does blend nice. I like the look. May make a custom A pillar for the gauges later on but this will do for now.

Routing the wires throught he firewall was a bit of a challenge. My hands aren't exactly small and a Civic isn't exactly a big mans car. However there is a rubber plug in the upper driver side of the firewall that was punched out and daylight was able to be seen. Had an access hole in the sound deadening material in that area from the factory. Perfect!

Delema. Exhaust manifold had a crack in it right at the primary O2 sensor. It had been like this for the past 3 e-tests and passed every time. The crack seemed to close up when the manifold got to operating temperature. However after installing the wideband, I thought it was throwing the reading off causing the above described problem. So I opted to install a new exhaust system now instead of at the time of the swap. See pics of crack on stock manifold and new exhaust manifold installed. In the pic of the new manifold you will notice the original O2 sensor in open air and the new wideband just left of center at the bottom. This is before the wideband extension was added. The original O2 was left in place and plugged in so the ECU will not throw a code because it hasn't read a resistance from the heater circuit. This will be installed again with the new engine and the wideband located about 1 foot from the turbo exhaust. Did I mension that a turbo is going on the new D16Y7? Well, that's the plan.

 

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Discussion Starter #3 (Edited)
Now on to the engine build. The new Y7 block is bored to 75.5mm with new Wiseco pistons and Eagle H beam rods. Should be good for up to 600hp. :wacko: Here is the block, engine stand and work area.





Yes I'm building this in the back room of the house. It's warm and fairly clean. To be sure, it's my parents place. My wife wouldn't let me do such a thing in our house. hahahaa! Besides it was my dad's idea. The furnace in the work shop quit and can't be replaced without costing a ton of money.

First step was to make sure the crank was in spec. After checking with a micrometer that reads to .0001", all journals were well within spec and nearly perfectly round. So no need for oversized bearings. ACL race bearings were installed and checked for fit. All seems good. Installed the crank and torqued it down. Next, installed the pistons and rods. Installed the first. All was fine. Installed the 2nd and turned over the crank. Wouldn't make a full revolution. WHAT?!? The new Eagle rod cap bolts hit the bearing cradle. Didn't read this anywhere. After many searches and a few email, the bearing craddle was machined to make clearance for the rod bolts.







What was done was a .625" (5/8") slot was machined right where the rod bolt would be travelling. The slot is .125" deep from the point at which the cutter path skimmed across the entire surface. Care was taken over the oil gallery on no. 2 cylinder/rod so not to cut into it. The depth of cut was reduce over the gallery by .060" as a precautionary measure. See the end results in the next post.
 

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Discussion Starter #4 (Edited)


Plenty of clearance over the bolt.

The next problem I wasn't aware of is the rod hitting the bottom of the cylinder. It is very close to say the least but it would still turn over by hand. No damage was done to the rod but a very small scrap could be seen. None the less clearance was added to the cylinder edge to allow the rod to pass easily. A 1/2" diameter burr with radius was used on a straight grinder to add clearance. Be careful not to get burrs inside the oil galleries of the block. I covered as much as I could and had my father hold a vacuum near the grinder as I burred the clearance in. Be sure to deburr the cylinder after grinding. We don't want to score the nice shiney new aluminum pistons. Sorry no pics of this.

Here is a link to a web site that shows the cylinder clearance for the rod. It also shows how to port your oil galleries. A very helpful article.
 

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Discussion Starter #5
Most of the components have been purchased for the turbo install. I chose to go with a cast exhaust manifold and a Turbonectics T3/T4B turbo with ball bearings. After reading and asking a couple questions, this turbo has a quick spool and will yield up to 350hp. Perfect! My target when all done is 275 to 300hp. At first breakin and a mild boost, this engine should be in the 160 to 200hp range.

A 2.5" exhaust system is already in place and will be fit when the turbo swap is in the car. For this build the stock Y7 head will be used until I save up enough for a nicely done head with a few bells and whistles. Plans are to have porting and matching done, oversized valves, cam, stiffer springs, spring retainers, valve guides and performance seals.

The high performance oil pump and water pump have been installed. Waiting for a new oil pan to arrive.
 

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Discussion Starter #6 (Edited)
practice tuning

Today was the day to test and practice tune my first engine. With the current D16Y7 106hp engine that's in the car now, I upgraded the intake manifold to a Y8. After purchasing the intake through Kijiji, I discovered that the intake purchased was from an automatic. However, the throttle body sent with it was from a manual. So this meant no IAC valve included. An IAC valve was purchased and the additional holes machined in the manifold to fit it to the back side, the swap was ready. Many things were setup in advance such as additional vacuum and water hose, clamps, throttle cable mount, manifold support bracket, and switching the 3 wire IAC plug to include a 2 wire version for the OBD1 setup going in. After reading a few threads on here I was ready for the swap.

The swap took a total of 3 hours including a hunt for various bits that were dropped and some shed blood. This was reasonable since it was January in Canada and the temp was 32F for about 5 hours throughout the day. A perfect window to get the job done.

All went well with the mechanics of the swap with a couple minor hiccups. Along with the manifold being upgraded to the Y8 with IACV on the back, 1000cc injectors were added and AEM fuel regulator. The first crank over there was no sign of firing. A quick look and it was obvious that there was a fuel leak. The fuel regulator had no o-ring installed. Have no idea where it went. It was there when I installed it a week ago on the fuel rail. Anyhow, an o-ring was added and injectors were checked again for connections and leaks. All looked good. This time the engine fired up. It idled at about 2000rpm, stone cold. Was a bit high I thought. I let it warm up and added in more coolant to top up what had leaked out during the swap. Idle came down to about 1200rpm when warmed up. Odd I thought. Then the engine started to make a squeeling sound. I thought GREAT! I spun a bearing and this thing is toast. But I didn't understand how because the oil was freshly changed and no signs of leaking or lack of pressure was found. After shutting it down and starting it a couple times and still hearing the squeeling, I decided to check the dip stick, while it was running. As soon as I pulled it out I could hear a vacuum being sucked into the hole. Ahhhh!!! I hooked up the valve cover ventalation to the intake manifold BEHIND the throttle body. Not the right place. It should be in front of the TB. So the switch was made and the squeeling went away. But now the top end had oil in places it shouldn't have been, such as down the valve guides under the seals. Thought I could smell burning oil slightly. It was apparent that the engine had loaded up with oil. When I took it for a test drive it was real apparent that oil was in the cylinders. As I went up through the gears you could see the blue and a hint of black coming out the back of the car. Again I thought GREAT! Now the top end is screwed and it's leading oil somewhere. But as I drove for about 2km, the smoke eventually went away. Remember, this engine has 375,000km on it already and is the guinee pig before the big pump gets put in. Nothing to loose really. And with the correct location for the valve cover breather, the engine idled it's normal 650rpm.

Tuning was make fairly easy with Crome Pro and the Moates Ostrich and Hulog Extreme. The wideband wasn't hooked up at this time for logging but the sensor was in the pipe to a gauge on the A pillar so A/F could still be monitored. With the Ostrich set to live tuning, settings were made to adjust the amount of fuel the new 1000cc injectors see and how much offset worked with this setup. A/F was a little on the rich side at first at a reading of 10.5. A little high for a N/A engine. About 15 minutes of tweaking and it was idling at 14.5 A/F and ran between 14.8 and 15.1 at cruising speed down the highway. A mild acceleration would yield a 14.0 A/F ratio. Overall, a decent map setup I feel. The engine doesn't hiccup, burp, backfire or missfire at all. Mechanical timing could still be tweaked as I noticed a small amount of lag in initial throttle response. Could also be the tip in fuel settings but I'll play with that more the next day.

Since this is Canada and it's winter, I let the car sit for 2 hours and went out to see if it would start and idle after the injector upgrade and IAC valve swap was done. To my pleasure, it started right up just like the stock injectors. It idled high like it's supposed to when cold and as it warmed up the rpm came down. Finally I could go inside where it's warm, and supper was ready, with a smile and not worry about not having a car in the morning for work. Thank God!
 

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Very clean!!! that notching is top notch :bigok: :bigrofl: sorry I know.. bad pun!!! good work man... rep for you :yes:
 

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rep, this is a REALLY clean build with quality parts...good write ups too.
the machine work looks precise, especially the notch job.
good luck with it the rest of the way. ill be watching for sure
 

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What offset did you end up with?
Did you bump down the timing some at idle?
How were you able to lean out the idle so much with these injectors without having it stumble?
Are you on the stock regulator?

I wanted to have a leaner idle with these injectors so payed for 4 hours over a couple sessions just to deal with this issue but we couldn't get it to run right or have proper response when we pulled the injectors down past 1.83ms.
My pressure is set close to stock.
You have better quench but I ran a different tune with an offset of 64 on a stock length rod vitara and now one with 45 in a .024" below the deck d15 mini me.

You have clean build there. Give your wife some time. She might come around in a few years. I've assembled a block and done head work in my unfinished basement. My wife doesn't care about that. I've installed cams in heads at the dining room table but my wife don't like that lol.
 

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Discussion Starter #14
u must tell us how you notched the girdle like that!! hahah
For machining the notch in the girdle, I started with a 1/2" dia. carbide endmill with .060" corner rads that was about 4" long overall. About 3" was needed to get between the legs of the girdle. After machining and some fitting, a 5/8" dia. cutter would have been the best choice since the clearance slot ended up being .625" wide. I used a bridgeport style milling machine to cut the areas needing clearance. It took some creativity to clamp the girdle down on the angle needed and not bend it or break it. I shimmed and blocked it then toe clamped it to the table. I suppose a large vise would have been a little easier to hold it in place. Even better, a sine vise would be best. The surface was skimmed until the cutter path went completely across. Then a .125" deep slot was cut. But there was a problem. The oil feed line passes under one area to be cut. So not to cut into the oil feed, the slot was stepped from .125" deep on the outside to .070" deep over the oil feed. This is one reason why I didn't open up the feed lines in the girdle like some others have done to increase oil flow. Instead, radius the sharp corners where oil enters and exits the feed lines.

Getting the slot centered can be somewhat time consuming if you want to get it accurate to + or - .005". But it's just a clearance slot. So a pencil and a good eye was the ticket. :)
 

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Discussion Starter #15 (Edited)
What offset did you end up with?
Did you bump down the timing some at idle?
How were you able to lean out the idle so much with these injectors without having it stumble?
Are you on the stock regulator?

I wanted to have a leaner idle with these injectors so payed for 4 hours over a couple sessions just to deal with this issue but we couldn't get it to run right or have proper response when we pulled the injectors down past 1.83ms.
My pressure is set close to stock.
You have better quench but I ran a different tune with an offset of 64 on a stock length rod vitara and now one with 45 in a .024" below the deck d15 mini me.

You have clean build there. Give your wife some time. She might come around in a few years. I've assembled a block and done head work in my unfinished basement. My wife doesn't care about that. I've installed cams in heads at the dining room table but my wife don't like that lol.
LOL! I assembled the pistons, rods, pins and rings on my parents kitchen table. It was my dad's idea. :)

I finally figured out how to get datalogging to record on Crome Pro. I started with idle timing at 16deg in the maps. Haven't played much with the timing yet. Today was adjusting the fuel maps for a smoother and safer A/F mixture throughout the throttle range. And it was successful.

The fuel offset is set to 52. Here is a screen dump of my current settings in the fuel multiplier table. This is my first attempt at tuning so suggestions are welcome if you see something odd.


I'm using the AEM fuel pressure regulator #25-304BK. It's set to about 32psi at idel which was actual pressure on my engine before any mods were done. For now it also has the stock fuel pump. I figured this would be ok since the engine is still naturally aspirated and wouldn't be using much more than what the stock injectors cold deliver. But the Walbro 255 will be going in when the weather warms up a bit.

Here is the ignition/fuel table for my first attempt at tuning with the Injector Dynamics 1000cc high impedence injectors. This is not the final table but the values are close. Some tweaking was done in the idle boxes that are highlighted in blue to get the A/F to be stable around 13.0, which I find ok. Going leaner does not yeild a stable idle A/F ratio. It also helped with initial throttle response.



The numbers in the highlighted blue boxes and cells around at the end of the day were in the 185 range for a 13.0 A/F at idle.

As you can see I'm using a turbo setup table for my NA engine at the moment. This seemed to be the only way to get fuel tools to work in Crome when changing injector size. This will help when the turbo gets added. Most of the vacuum cells will be close enough to be in the ballpark and focus can be on the boost cells when the time comes.
 

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Thanks for posting that up. Some people feel you might want to run a couple more boost columns so it has a lower jump in values to intertrapolate with. If you are not familiar with the term. It sees the different boost values and makes an average for how much fuel to run depending where you are at. But that can wait of course. I was running 6 boost columns with the 4 bar and the beaver brought up the issue.

You're timing looks decent and pulls back a lot past 21 lbs but you'll pretty much want a dyno to find you how much timing you can add before it stops making power at a given boost amount without detonating. Each set up will tell you how much timing it likes. Now you have a good opportunity to dial in the n/a better.
 

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Discussion Starter #17 (Edited)
This timing map is mostly generated by Crome. I've selected the commonly used cells and altered them up and down to find how the engine reacts. However I find that the preset timing is generally a middle/conservative setting and will leave it until I get the fuel map where I want it. Then I will start adjusting each cell's timing to where it is optimum.

The 1000cc injectors definitely have a different sound at idle than the stock. They have a noticable 'clicky' sound. It can mostly be heard at idle since the engine is quietest then. At first I thought it was timing but after adjusting it up and down, the sound didn't move or change. It can easily be heard when leaning over the engine and listening where the sound comes from. Almost undetected when listening in front of the engine at the header. Can easily be heard when listening from the back side over top the intake.

I'll post maps when I feel the tune is decent. Until then, it gets datalogged every time I drive to work and back home. It's a 10km drive and covers most of the common rpm range for daily driving.

And yes, I was toying with the idea of running more boost columns for that very reason.

Been adjusting the cranking fuel, tip-in and post fuel numbers. What's happening, and I still believe this is due to the stock fuel pump, is at cold start (about 10F) it will crank, start and stall shorlty after. It will do this 2 times and on the 3rd time it will stay running. I just seems like it's not getting enough fuel to stay running for the first 30 seconds after a cold start. Unfortunately this is a lengthy process to tune since it can only be done once or twice a day, when the engine is stone cold.
 

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Been adjusting the cranking fuel, tip-in and post fuel numbers. What's happening, and I still believe this is due to the stock fuel pump, is at cold start (about 10F) it will crank, start and stall shorlty after. It will do this 2 times and on the 3rd time it will stay running. I just seems like it's not getting enough fuel to stay running for the first 30 seconds after a cold start. Unfortunately this is a lengthy process to tune since it can only be done once or twice a day, when the engine is stone cold.
There are scalers for cranking and post start trim. Try adjusting your post start scaler above 1 for starters. Or you could turn up the fuel values for individual temp zones in the advanced tables.
 

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Discussion Starter #19
Thanks for the tip. I've been adjusting the post crank and it's around .9 right now. Starts fine and idles nice even at 4F, no block heater!

Also been adjusting the battery offset. Strange things were happening like going rich then real lean when turning accessories such as rear window defrost. After setting battery offsets it stays reletively consistant through the entire warm up.

The more I use Crome Pro the more I like what it does. So many adjustments to tune with. So far the tune is pretty steady through the rpm range at 13.5 A/F ratio with a 14.8 to 15.0 when cruzing down the highway, for a better fuel ecconomy. Got it starting every time without stalling and idling correct during the warm up process. The next item to concour is the idle with warm. It sometimes goes real rich then idles fast at about 1300 for a couple seconds then goes back to a normal idle and A/F ratio. Doesn't do it consistantly. Will make more adjustments in the Advanced Tables section. That seems to be where the fine tuning is going to happen especially for cold weather.
 

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Discussion Starter #20 (Edited)
Here's a recap on what I've don't with the existing engine that's in the car right now.

Installed Y8 manual intake manifold.
Installed AEM high flow cold air intake. Removal of the stock air box.
Installed stainless steel header and 2.5" catback high flow exhaust.
Installed 1000cc Injector Dynamics high impedence injectors.
Installed OBD1 chipped ECU with Chrome tune.
Installed oil, A/F, and vacuum/boost gauges.
Installed AEM fuel regulator.
Installed fuel pressure gauge under hood.

This engine now has 376,000km on it. The last oil change a 5w20 synthetic oil was put in for better cold starts here in Canada during the heart of winter. Works good but it does use a little oil. Have added 1L and there is another 1000km before the oil change is due. I believe it is being consumed through the valve guides. A puff of blue smoke upon acceleration is noticable after a few minutes of idle.

After having a few weeks of tuning and fine tuning the ECU (on Chrome) with the new intake and injectors, the tables have been set and tested. The last couple tanks of fuel have resulted in +40mpg, mostly highway driving. Which is excellent for winter time and very close to the fuel ecconomy with the stock 190cc injectors and Y7 manifolds. Will look at the spark plugs shorlty to note any effects of the tune on the engine.

The most noticable gain is the power band at and above 4000rpm. It used to have a smooth power band all the way through. Now with the bolt ons and tuning it feels like a mild turbo kicks in at 4000rpm.

The above was done as a test for learning experience as I have never done any of this previously. I am please with the outcome and feel even more confident for the swap happening in June. I'm flying solo with this project, outside what is researched on here and the net, since I am in a rural area away from any large city with dyno's and other D16 tuners.

Thanks to D-series and the network of users who have helped out this far. Pictures and info will follow with the new engine build and install as work is completed.

Here's a couple screen shots of the final Crome setup for the 1000cc injectors on a D16Y7(Y8) setup.





This tune runs real rich during warm-up, around 11.0 A/F at idle. At warm idle it runs 13.1 A/F. Stays in the 13's during acceleration (from 2 to 10 vacuum). Runs at 14.5 to 15.0 at highway speed (100km/h - 2700rpm).

In my findings the O2 sensor, Bosch LSU4.2 in this case with the AEM UEGO system, requires a 15 to 20 second warm up before engine start up in order to read consistently from one start to the next. A quick start (little to no sensor warm up) will sometimes yield lean or rich readings from the sensor. The sensor reading doesn't affect A/F mixture when in open loop. However if running closed loop, the engine will go through a series of rich/lean settings before the sensor stablizes, if feeding data to the ECU from this O2 sensor.
 

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